From the seven aspirations of the African Union’s vision and agenda 2063, a prosperous Africa based on inclusive growth and sustainable development will rise from a sustained agricultural transformation and energy transition. The intensification and transformation of agriculture sector requires mechanized approaches and irrigation systems that consume energy and water. More than 90% of energy resources in Africa are generated from hydropower plants supplied mainly with water of rivers from mountains. The Water-Energy-Food security (WEF) nexus is a modern framework of planning interventions that require synergies between these 3 sectors that are crucial for the development of Africa. We need to find ways to integrate the WEF nexus in sustainable mountain development and all new investments and planned programmes should incorporate this aspect. The topics that will be discussed under this theme include: Efficient utilization of Africa Mountains’ freshwater resources, Integration and coordination of Water-Energy-Food security nexus in policies, plans and implementation strategies, Innovations for reducing water pollution and meet the green energy demand in African mountain areas, Experiences on efficient food systems that promote resilient agriculture, maintain ecosystems’ integrity, and enhance community’s capacity to adapt to climate change.